A scientific review led by Professor Ascensión Marcos of the Science, Food Technology and Nutrition Institute of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas de España (CSIC – High Council of Scientific Research of Spain) and published in the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria (Hospital Nutrition), states than to achieve the maximum effect from exercise, prevent cardiovascular or inflammatory disease, and also lose weight, an evaluation must be made of the appropriate amount of physical exercise needed for each person as well as the ideal amount of liquid intake. As this publication emphasises, physical exercise is being applied as medicine to promote healthy habits and reduce the risk of certain diseases. However, as with medicines, it is necessary to evaluate the dose, frequency and duration in order to obtain the greatest effectiveness.

A compendium and consensus of 10 oral communications made in the "I Symposium on Physical Activity, Hydration and Health", held by the Real e Ilustre Colegio de Farmacéuticos (Royal and Illustrious Official College of Pharmacists) of Seville, Spain includes guidelines to achieve adequate hydration; this, together with ongoing physical activity, help to prevent the consequences of obesity or overweight. It also makes special mention of beverages for athletes as an effective tool for providing carbohydrates that help maintain an appropriate concentration of glucose in the blood, replacing electrolytes (in order to avoid hyponatremia) and avoiding dehydration.

Marcos A et al. Physical activity, hydration and health. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 2014;9:1224-1239.